Matrix-Analytic Methods in Stochastic Models

Energy Efficiency in the Urban Environment is a study of energy crisis, urbanisation, and climate change, as well as a discussion of how to combat these global.

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Recently, I had a pelvic ultrasound to evaluate uterine fibroids. During the procedure, the radiologist found a kidney cyst. Should I be concerned about kidney cancer? Kidney or renal cysts are small, fluid-filled sacs in the kidneys; they're usually harmless and rarely cause symptoms.

Kidney Cysts

Kidney cysts are quite common, and many people have them without knowing it. In most cases, cysts are discovered incidentally during an ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI scan for some other health reason. When a kidney cyst is detected, the first step is to determine whether it's "simple" or "complex. Complex cysts may have thick walls, several lobes, calcium flecks, or solid components.

Kidney cysts are usually benign, but they do need to be evaluated to make sure they don't contain cancer. A urologist will examine the scan and recommend watchful waiting, biopsy, or removal.

Kidney Cyst: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment and More

Most kidney cysts don't require any treatment. Acquired cysts are usually simple, ie, they are round and sharply demarcated with smooth walls. They may be solitary or multiple.

Isolated cysts are most often detected incidentally on imaging studies; they are distinguished from other cystic renal disorders and renal masses, such as renal cell carcinoma , which is typically irregular or multiloculated with complex features such as irregular walls, septae, and areas of unclear demarcation or calcification. Their cause is unknown. They are generally clinically insignificant but rarely can cause hematuria or become infected.

By the way, doctor: Should I be worried about a kidney cyst?

Multiple cysts are most common in patients with chronic kidney disease , especially patients undergoing dialysis for many years. Cause is unknown, but the cysts may be due to compensatory hyperplasia of residually functioning nephrons. This disorder can usually be differentiated from autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease by the absence of family history and by small or normal-sized kidneys.

Acquired cysts are usually asymptomatic, but occasional patients develop hematuria, renal or perirenal hemorrhage, infection, or flank pain. Acquired cysts are significant mainly because patients have a higher incidence of renal cell carcinoma; whether the cysts become malignant is unknown. For this reason, some physicians periodically screen patients with acquired cysts for renal carcinoma using ultrasonography or CT.

Cysts that cause persistent bleeding or infection may require percutaneous drainage or, rarely, partial or complete nephrectomy. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world.

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