In other words, students come to school with preconceptions about how the world works.
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If that initial understanding is not engaged, students may fail to grasp the new information or concepts, or may learn for purposes of the test, but fail to transfer the learning to new situations see National Research Council, Ch. The challenge for teachers is to build on children's early learning and promote the growth of conceptual knowledge.
Teachers need to make time to hear their students' ideas and questions. They need to be on the lookout for the misconceptions that characterize children's immature thought and frame their learning. They need to be prepared to assess children's thinking abilities, to decide when to make connections between existing knowledge and school learning and when to help the child overcome misconceptions or naive understandings. Another line of investigation suggested by cognitive and learning research involves the development of pedagogical approaches that integrate the three critical elements of deep understanding: factual grounding, awareness of the structure of knowledge in a discipline, and metacognitive or self-monitoring activities.
Classroom teaching has often focused too narrowly on the memorization of information, giving short shrift to critical thinking, conceptual understanding, and in-depth knowledge of subject matter. As shown by numerous research studies, the development of intellectual competence requires more than the accumulation of discrete pieces of information. The elements of content that can be learned about a domain of knowledge are embedded in coherent structures. Indeed, the ability to discern and build on those structures distinguishes experts from novices in a given field.
For example, experts in physics do not simply solve problems better or faster than beginning learners. They approach the problems differently, identifying similarities among problems based on major principles and laws of physics; in contrast, novices group problems according to the equations. Helping students to recognize and build on knowledge structures is a crucial goal of teaching.
A student's capacity to function within a conceptual field will mature as he or she is helped to mesh different kinds of information, use them as a springboard for abstract thinking, and apply more rigorous forms of reasoning Webb and Romberg, Curriculum can be thought of as a way to familiarize learners with the landscape of a knowledge domain or subject matter, so that they can negotiate the new terrain on their own and make effective use of its resources Greeno, They need the kinds of learning activities that will help them talk, write, and think about the subject matter.
By talking and listening to each others' thinking, learners gain the vocabulary, syntax, and rhetoric—the discourse—needed to understand and describe the knowledge structures associated with specific subjects and specific problems. They can gain greater capacity for metacognition—thinking about and gaining insight into their own thinking and learning processes.
Helping students evaluate and regulate their own learning, using communication with peers and teachers as part of the process, can be effective in various domains Carey, ; Treisman, Educational technologies can help students develop models of what they are learning. They make the learners' reasoning processes public and inspectable Schauble, ; Chapman, There is a wealth of research that helps illuminate the relationships between teaching approaches and students' ability to make use of what they have learned.
Certain methods of teaching, particularly those that emphasize memorization as an end in itself, tend to produce knowledge that is seldom if ever used. Students who learn to solve problems by following formulas, for example, often are unable to use their skills in new situations Redish, As a consequence, students often view school learning as irrelevant. Students who have been afforded opportunities to generalize from their previous experiences Klahr and Carver, , who have learned with multiple examples, practiced their skills in a variety of situations, and discussed their ideas with others.
They know when to use it and when it is not appropriate, how to fine-tune it to make it appropriate to different circumstances, and how to develop strategies for addressing scenarios that differ from the primary case [Anderson et al. There are many implications for schooling in the research on transfer of learning. Much remains to be worked out in practice.
A teacher's focus needs to be on helping students make connections between new and old knowledge. This means, in part, helping students approach learning situations in a deliberate fashion. The goal is to help students think about the specific challenges associated with new material, anticipate difficulties, evaluate feedback, and explain things to themselves to gauge their own progress toward understanding. Learning has often been thought of as an individual—and perhaps solitary—activity. A number of powerful, new ideas for improving education derive from research on the interpersonal dimensions of learning, on cognition as a social process.
Several lines of research on the social context of learning have been inspired by the work of Vygotsky The emphasis shifts from the individual learner to the environmental supports for learning, including intellectual tools like language, other minds, and the surrounding culture with all of its symbols and rituals that help to organize events. These things—tools, people, culture—strongly influence what a person regards as meaningful Egan, These things—tools, people, culture—strongly influence what a person regards as meaningful.
Researchers who study how environments support learning and development argue that the human being at any point of development learns within the framework of meaningfulness. Researchers in the Vygotskian tradition believe that anchoring learning in specific situations taps a critical source of meaning, and they encourage connections between learning and one's. Cole's is one among a variety of new approaches in developmental science to call for more attention to settings the ecology in the study of learning and behavior Bronfenbrenner and Morris, This represents a clear departure from older approaches to cognition that focused almost exclusively on the internal processes of an individual mind.
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The social perspective emphasizes the practical and social grounding of cognition in the structures of everyday activities and relationships Suchman, ; Lave, a, b; Rogoff, ; Lave and Wenger, ; Wertsch ; Hutchins, ; Nardi, It focuses attention on a number of mechanisms of learning that did not emerge in earlier studies of individual cognition, on the internalization of social processes during learning. This research also has provided insight on how learning is guided and supported "scaffolded" by more experienced individuals and how learners play an active role in their own development Rogoff and Wertsch, ; Rogoff, , ; Resnick, b; Lave, a, b; Brown et al.
The social perspective has had a significant effect on how classroom learning is studied, and it has produced research on local variations in classroom activities and organization Heber, ; Heath, ; Rohlen, ; Cazden, ; Tobin et al. The social perspective has also focused scholarly attention on understudied populations of learners and revealed learning differences among children of differing social class and learning variations associated with race and ethnicity Ginsburg, ; Brice-Heath, , A final variant on the theme of cognition as a social process is the idea of distributed cognition.
When scientists hold laboratory meetings to discuss a project and share their ideas, experiences, successes, failures, and ideas for next steps, they share a knowledge of a subject that propels the discussion beyond procedural details to the substantive issues. Professionals and scientists frequently use a collegial mode of inquiry and interaction, having found that the exchange of ideas will lead to quicker and more effective solutions than individual work alone. Professionals and scientists frequently use a collegial mode of inquiry and interaction. Distributed cognition could prove to be an important construct for developing more successful ways of organizing classrooms and instruction.
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It is often cited as part of the promise of new computer-based educational technologies Pea, ; Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, There is some evidence that this approach to learning can be an effective mechanism for classroom learning National Research Council, ; Brown and Campione, In classrooms designed to encourage this approach to children's learning, researchers have discovered that even locating and defining a problem is often a joint enterprise Wertsch et al.
While some aspects of problem solving take place "in the head," many others take place "in the world. Bits and pieces of the approach are visible in many schools in the use of aides and volunteers in the classroom, team teaching within and between schools, and the inclusion of community members and academic or industrial specialists in school activities. There have been some exciting experiments with programs like cooperative learning, but there is much to be learned about how to translate the insights from the research on distributed learning into programs that improve student learning in the average school.
Motivation research studies how individuals decide which tasks to engage in and what affects the persistence and intensity of their engagement. The problem is an intriguing one: Why do some individuals persist even when they are struggling, while others quit at the first sign of difficulty?
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Why do some individuals persist even when they are struggling, while others quit at the first sign of difficulty? The issue is of fundamental importance. No amount of research and no attempts at reform are likely to strengthen learning unless students themselves are willing to work hard. The challenges of today's world require a level of knowledge and expertise that cannot be acquired without effort, even by the most able students. From the early grades, learners must exert themselves to pay attention, to carry out assignments, to study and review challenging material, and they must somehow be motivated to do these things.
In general, more is known about how learning takes place than about the conditions and incentives that motivate students to expend effort and to achieve special goals. Although there is a lot of research on motivation, there is no commonly accepted unifying theory or even a set of agreed-upon principles and no systematic application of what is known to educational practice.
This lack of knowledge is especially troubling in light of strong evidence that the great majority of American students are not paying as much attention to schoolwork or exerting as much effort as they could. A survey conducted by Public Agenda , Getting By: What American Teenagers Really Think About Their Schools , indicated that two-thirds of teenagers readily admit that they could do much better in school if they tried. Half of the teenagers surveyed by Public Agenda say their schools fail to challenge them to do their best. Teenagers readily admit that they could do much better in school if they tried.
Other studies support these findings. For the Mood of American Youth National Association of Secondary School Principals, , American teenagers were surveyed about their attitudes toward various aspects of their daily life; the survey revealed far more positive attitudes toward friends, sports, and social activities than toward classes and learning. Does this matter? A study from the U.
Department of Education's National Education Longitudinal Survey investigated the relation between eighth graders' engagement with learning including attendance, class participation, extra-curricular involvement, and several indicators of a students' identification with the school and their school achievement. The survey shows a strong positive relationship between the degree to which school matters to students and the outcomes of schooling, and these relationships persist even when racial, socioeconomic, and home-language differences are controlled U.
Department of Education, It is clear from this data, to say nothing of the everyday observations of teachers, that there is great variation in the motivation willingness to expend effort that students bring to their studies and, furthermore, that a very substantial proportion of children in schools expend only modest amounts of energy and time on learning.
Achievement data indicate that a significant minority of children in schools expend only minimal effort on acquiring the skills and knowledge needed to participate fully in society as adults. If ways can be found to increase the amount of effort that students, and particularly young stu-.
A large and potentially bewildering number of physical, psychological, social, and instructional variables have been examined for their possible influence on student engagement in learning; see Figure 1. Some of the themes that might be explored as part of a Strategic Education Research Program are discussed in the rest of this section.
For school-age children, motivation to achieve is strongly related to their beliefs about the nature of intelligence and how it is acquired Dweck and Elliot, If they believe in the malleability of intelligence and some internal locus of control rather than fixed aptitude and luck or the actions of others , children will try and keep trying, even if they fail at first to master the academic content in a task; without that belief, many avoid trying altogether Elliott and Dweck, ; see also Henderson and Dweck, Motivation to achieve is strongly related to.
Cross-cultural research lends support to this view. An extensive study of elementary education in Japan, China, and the United States suggests that higher achievement in Asian countries results, at least in part, from a belief in the power of effort on the part of teachers, parents, and students Stevenson and Stigler, This study emphasizes the role of parents, noting that U. The researchers note the propensity of U. Children tend to solidify a sense of who they are academically and where they stand in relation to their peers when they are in the primary grades Carnegie Task Force, The notions they form about their own capabilities, based on messages received from their family, school, community, and the popular media, can strongly influence their motivation to succeed and their later success.
Societal messages about fixed aptitude associated with groups by race, ethnicity, or gender can be particularly oppressive.
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For example, African American students appear to resist intellectual but not athletic competition; constant messages about the academic inferiority of black students negatively affect black students' perceptions, resulting. Variables that may affect student motivation. A relationship between attributions of fixed aptitude to ethnic groups and students' performance has been demonstrated experimentally Steele, ; Steele, ; Steele and Aronson, If parental beliefs about the nature of intelligence and learning influence children's engagement in learning generally, parent's attitudes can also influence children's school performance in specific subjects or domains.
The most studied domain is literacy DeBaryshe, ; Spiegel, Researchers have shown that intrinsic motivation for reading is more likely to develop in homes where literacy is viewed as a source of entertainment and pleasure Baker et al. This is an important finding, since studies of reading and motivation show that for school-age children, positive attitudes toward reading correlate with higher levels of reading achievement Baker and Wigfield, in press.
Teachers' attitudes and expectations also influence students' motivation and achievement. In the late s and s there. One study Brophy and Good, found that about one-third of classroom teachers show patterns of highly differentiated behavior: they call on low achievers less often to answer classroom questions or perform demonstrations, wait less time for them to answer questions, praise them less frequently after successful responses, criticize them more frequently for incorrect responses, and do not stay with them in failure situations by providing clues or asking follow-up questions.
Another study Kerman, identified behaviors that teachers in Los Angeles were more likely to use with students whom they perceived to be high achievers; when they instructed those teachers to purposefully use those behaviors with low achievers, the result was improved performance. Much remains to be discovered about the influence of adults' attitudes and expectations on children's motivation and engagement.
More knowledge is also needed about how parents'.
Parents obviously influence their children's learning, but much more needs to be known about whether parent behaviors and attitudes can be changed, the kinds of interventions that can change them, and how much these interventions would ultimately improve student motivation and student learning Baker et al.
There is also room for greater methodological rigor. Almost 20 years ago there was a warning that the educational literature ''contains its share of loose thinking about expectations of lower-class and minority-group children, much of it based on fantasy rather than hard evidence'' Entwisle and Hayduk, The warning is as cogent today, as parents and policy makers look to standards-based reform to change the expectation levels for all students in order to motivate them to work harder and achieve more.
The interaction effects are likely to be far more complicated than the public enthusiasm admits of. Without rigorous study and evaluation, standards-based reform is likely to become just another innovation that failed. A distinction is commonly made between motivation generated by the intrinsic interest or value of the material being studied and the creation of motivation through the use of extrinsic incentives, such as praise, grades, stars, or other rewards Stipek, There is reason to think that both factors can be purposefully manipulated to increase student engagement.
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One line of research shows that intrinsic motivation can be enhanced through involvement in activities that are varied, engaging, social, and "authentic" that is, related to real-world purposes or uses. For example, project-based learning, which allows small groups of students to work together on extended projects, can increase students' motivation to learn Brown and Campione, Discovery learning, an approach developed by cognitive scientists to encourage students to discover for themselves concepts and connections which underlie a body of knowledge, can be more engaging than a traditional lecture Simon, But not every subject can be made intrinsically interesting to every student.
If they are to expend sufficient effort on their. Instructional designers have introduced specific strategies to increase student motivation.